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Wastewater Use in Agriculture
Microsoft Producer presentations

Reuse collage

            Part 1:  Introduction     Transcript of Part 1 (includes slides)
            Part 2:  Health aspects     Transcript of Part 2 (includes slides)
            Part 3:  Quantitative microbial risk analysis     Transcript of Part 3 (includes slides)
            Part 4:  Health protection     Transcript of Part 4 (includes slides)

            Presentation downloads

            See also: Wastewater storage & treatment reservoirs  
                             Urban agriculture
                             Wastewater use in aquaculture
            Supporting material:

Sewage waters a tenth of world's irrigated crops [New Scientist, 2004]

WHO logo Guidelines for the Safe Use of Wastewater, Excreta and Greywater - Volume 2:
Wastewater Use in Agriculture the 2006 WHO Guidelines.  

Information Kit #1: Using human waste safely for livelihoods, food production and health: Information kit on the 3rd edition of the Guidelines for the safe use of wastewater, excreta and greywater in agriculture and  aquaculture (WHO, FAO, IDRC and IWMI, 2008).
Kit #1 includes: Guidance Note for Programme Managers and Engineers: A Numerical Guide to Volume 2 of the Guidelines and Practical Advice on how to Transpose them into National Standards.

Information Kit #2:
 The Guidelines for the Safe Use of Wastewater, Excreta and Greywater in Agriculture and Aquaculture “Using Human Waste Safely for Livelihoods, Food Production and Health”
Kit #2 includes: Updating the 2006 WHO Guidelines: More Appropriate Tolerable Additional Burden of Disease, Improved Determination of Annual Risks, Norovirus and Ascaris Infection Risks, Extended Health-Protection Control Measures, Treatment and Non-treatment Options.

Explanatory note on DALYs
here see also: Using Cost-Effectiveness Analysis for Setting Health Priorities (DCPP, 2008)

            Health risks in wastewater irrigation: comparing estimates from quantitative microbial risk
            analyses and epidemiological studies [Journal of Water and Health, 2007]

See also: Quantitative microbial risk analysis Monte Carlo computer programs
                                  QMRA: A Beginner's Guide
                                  Nematode eggs

  Improving Wastewater Use in Agriculture: An Emerging Priority [Policy Research Working Paper
  No. 5412, World Bank, 2010] − a more detailed version of this report is available here.

            The Wealth of Waste: The Economics of Wastewater Use in Agriculture [FAO, 2010]

            The challenges of wastewater irrigation in developing countries [Agricultural Water Management,

  Wastewater Reuse [whole issue of Irrigation and Drainage Systems, June 2010]

  Wastewater use − food safety and health aspects [special issue of Tropical Medicine &
  International Health
, December 2007]

  The Accra Consensus: Agenda for Research, Capacity Building & Action on the Safe Use of
  Wastewater and Excreta in Agriculture
[IWMI, 2008]

  Water for Urban Agriculture [whole issue of Urban Agriculture, September 2008]

            Quality Control of Wastewater for Irrigated Crop Production [FAO, 1997]

  Wasting away: Effluent water bolsters urban agriculture, but poses serious health risks [Circle of
  Blue, 2008]

            Water for farming: Running dry [The Economist, 2008] “The world has a water 
            shortage, not a food shortage”.  Use wastewater!

            Biofuels in India: Power plants [The Economist, 2008] − Irrigate them with wastewater!

  Drivers and characteristics of wastewater agriculture in developing countries – results from a global
  assessment [IWMI, 2008]

  Coming clean on wastewater irrigation [New Agriculturalist, 2008]

  Land application of wastewater in arid regions: The challenge of balancing plant water requirements
  and nitrogen uptake [New Mexico State University, ~2001]

  Private Standards in the United States and European Union Markets for Fruit and Vegetables:
  Implications for Developing Countries [FAO, 2007
download file "a1245e00.pdf"]

            The Hyderabad Declaration on Wastewater Use in Agriculture  [14 November 2002]
Wastewater reuse in Jordan   [H2O Knowledge Fair, UNDP]

            Water from (Waste)Water: The Dependable Resource [Stockholm Water Prize: Laureate's
            Lecture, August 2001; also published here]

            Water reclamation, reuse and public health [WST, 2007]

            Cities versus Agriculture: Revisiting Intersectoral Water Transfers, Potential Gains and
            Conflicts [IWMI, 2006]

  Irrigated urban vegetable production in Ghana: microbiological contamination in farms and markets
  and associated consumer risk groups [JWH, 2007]

            Water Recycling and Reuse [in California, 2006]

            Waste Reuse in Agriculture [SANDEC webpage with links to pdf files]

            Wastewater reclamation and reuse in France [unknown date]

  Small and decentralized systems for wastewater treatment and reuse in the USA [in Water
  Conservation, Reuse, and Recycling: Proceedings of an Iranian-American Workshop, NAP, 2005]

            Water reuse in Europe [
E-WAter, 2007] 
            Use of treated municipal wastewater in irrigated agriculture − Review of some practices in Spain
            and Greece [Agricultural Water Management, 2010]

            Australian Water Recycling Centre of Excellence (website) – Discussion papers
            National Guidelines for Water Recycling [2006]
            Reclaimed Water Guidelines [in Australian States]
            Australian Handbooks on using Recycled Water

            Growing Crops with Reclaimed Wastewater [CSIRO Publishing, 2006]
            Guidelines for Developing Recycled Water Schemes in Horticulture [2005]
            ReWater Newsletters [on use of recycled water in Australian horticulture]
            Position of the Australian horticultural industry with respect to the use of reclaimed water
            [Agricultural Water Management, 2005]
            An Analysis of the Social Aspects of Establishing Agricultural Recycled Water Schemes [Bureau of
            Rural Sciences, Australian Government, 2008]
            Recycled water: how good should it be? Focus on fit-for-purpose [ReWater, 2009]

            Recycled water
saving viticulture [in Australia] [reWater, 2008]
            Squeezing Wine from Wastewater: Lessons in Reuse
Now you know why Australian wines have that certain je ne sais quoi!

            Vin de Merde are the French trying to catch up?!!

            Wastewater Use in Irrigated Agriculture [CABI Publishing, 2004]  Listen to audioclip.

            Water: More Nutrition per Drop  [SIWI & IWMI, 2004]

            Wastewater Reuse [World Bank, 2003]

            Critical Review of Epidemiological Evidence of the Health Effects of Wastewater and
            Excreta Use in Agriculture [WHO, 2002]

            Integrated Systems for the Treatment and Recycling of Waste Water in Latin America: Reality and
            Potential  [CEPIS, 2002 - executive summary]

            Wastewater Reuse in Urban Agriculture [UA Magazine #8, 2002]

            Water Quality: Guidelines, Standards and Health: Assessment of Risk and Risk
            Management for Water-related Infectious Disease [WHO, 2001]

            Urban Wastewater Reuse for Crop Production in the Water-short Guanajuato River Basin                           (Mexico City Irrigation Districts) [IWMI, 2000]

            Wastewater reuse conserves water and protects waterways [NESC, 2000]

            Analysis of Wastewater for Use in Agriculture [WHO, 1996]
            Watch: Analysis of wastewater for use in agriculture [this is a scanned version of a videotape
            presented in Microsoft Producer format]

            Reuse of Wastewater in Agriculture: A Guide for Planners [World Bank, 1994]

            Wastewater Treatment and Reuse in Agriculture [FAO, 1992]
            Health Guidelines for the Use of Wastewater in Agriculture and Aquaculture
            [The 1989 WHO Guidelines] − see also: Use of sewage and sewage sludge in agriculture
            [Lancet, 1990]

            Human Wastes: Health Aspects of their Use in Agriculture and Aquaculture
            [IRCWD News #24/25, May 1988]

            Health Aspects of Nightsoil and Sludge Use in Agriculture and Aquaculture
            [IRCWD News #23, December 1985 - includes The Engelberg Report]

            Wastewater Irrigation in Developing Countries: Health Effects and Technical Solutions
            [World Bank, 1986]  Summary Report

            Epidemiologic studies of Cyclospora cayetanensis in Guatemala [EID, 1999]

  Effluent: the "new water" for Botswana [eWISA, 2004]
  Water and Food Security [FAO Factsheet]

  Using Recycled Water: A Manual for the Pasture and Fodder Crop Industries [Government of
  Australia, 2008]

  Some environmental problems associated with the use of treated wastewater for irrigation in Jordan
  [Agricultural Water Management, 1997]
– actually very few problems!

  European Union: Treated waste water reuse

  Trees are the solution to wastewater treatment for small communities [USDA, 2002]

  See also: Drip Irrigation low-cost drip irrigation, and drip irrigation of treated
including WSP effluents, and the concomitant problem of emitter

            Greywater irrigation: see Greywater Management

            Physicochemical quality
            Water Quality for Agriculture [FAO, 1985]
            The Use of Saline Waters for Crop Production [FAO, 1992]
            Salinity Management for Sustainable Irrigation: Integrating Science, Environment, and Economics
            [World Bank, 2000]

            Advances in the Assessment and Monitoring of Salinization and Status of Biosaline Agriculture
            [FAO, 2009]
            Agricultural Drainage Water Management in Arid and Semi-Arid Areas [FAO, 2002] − Annex 1
            contains crop salt tolerance data (useful when irrigating with
            Sodicity and salinity in a Brazilian oxisol cultivated with sugarcane irrigated with wastewater
            [Agricultural Water Management, 2009]
            Salinity Management Guide [Southern California Salinity Coalition and National Water Research
            Institute, 2009] − “for landscape designers, park managers and anyone else using
            recycled water for landscape irrigation”.

            Recycled water: how good should it be? Focus on fit-for-purpose [ReWater, 2009]           

            Wastewater use in Islamic countries

            Reuse of wastewater effluents for irrigation [excerpt from Chapter 6 of Water Management in
            Islam, IDRC, 2001]

  FAO animation: Water 101 − Part 1: Water for Food

  ►The Wastewater Database [FAO] – this Database contains information on
  wastewater production, treatment, re-use, as well as economic information
  provided by FAO member states. Published data in peer-reviewed papers,
  workshop/conference/meeting proceedings, and FAO's related databases such 
  as AQUASTAT and FAOSTAT are also included.

            ►CLIMWAT (FAO) – this database includes data from a total of 3,262 
            meteorological stations in 144 countries.

            History: The excremental chain [2002]

            Books (for purchase or loan only):
Water Reuse: An International Survey [IWA Publishing, 2008]
            Efficient Management of Wastewater: Its Treatment and Reuse in Mediterranean Countries
               [Springer, 2008] ULL catalogue entry. Free download link (pdf file).
            More Crop Per Drop [IWA Publishing, 2006]
            Water for Food, Water for Life: A Comprehensive Assessment of Water Management in  
               Agriculture [Earthscan/FAO, 2007]   Summary   ULL catalogue entry
            Water Reuse for Irrigation: Agriculture, Landscapes, and Turf Grass [CRC Press, 2004]
               ULL catalogue entry (e-book).
  Water Reuse: Understanding Public Perception and Participation [WERF, 2003]  
  Wastewater Reclamation and Reuse [
Technomic Publishing, 1998] ULL catalogue entry.
  Water Reuse: Issues, Technologies, and Applications [McGraw Hill, 2007]Free download link
  (.rar [zip] file).

  Included for completeness only: Guidelines for Water Reuse [US EPA & USAID, 2004]