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Application of multi-trial Monte Carlo design simulations to the design of
RISKS TO HUMAN HEALTH
associated
with the use of wastewaters for crop irrigation

There are two basic references for this topic:

1. Health Guidelines for the Use of Wastewater in Agriculture and Aquaculture, Technical Report Series No. 778, World Health Organization, Geneva, 1989 [Note: new guidelines are due to be published by WHO in 2004; check the WHO Water, Sanitation and Health homepage], and

2. C. N. Haas, J. B. Rose and C. P. Gerba, Quantitative Microbial Risk Analysis, John Wiley & Sons, New York, 1999.

And there are two basic types of wastewater irrigation:

1. 'Unrestricted' irrigation: this refers to the irrigation of all crops, including vegetables and salad crops eaten uncooked, and

2. 'Restricted' irrigation: this refers to the irrigation of all crops except vegetables and salad crops eaten uncooked.

This is an important distinction as, with restricted irrigation, we have to protect only the health of those who work in the wastewater-irrigated fields, whereas, with unrestricted irrigation, we also have to protect the health of those who eat the wastewater-irrigated crops (especially those which are always, or may be sometimes, eaten raw).

MONTE CARLO RISK ANALYSIS PROGRAMS

Two programs are available for:

Unrestricted irrigation

and

Restricted irrigation


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